bet360手机版_亚博0手机版 – 亚博0手机版 http://yafeiwj.com bet360手机版 Thu, 28 Mar 2019 18:16:25 +0000 zh-CN hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.7 Europe is not afraid to regulate Big Tech. EU Competition Commissioner Vestager explains why._亚博0手机版 – 亚博0手机版 http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/29/europe-is-not-afraid-to-regulate-big-tech-eu-competition-commissioner-vestager-explains-why/ http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/29/europe-is-not-afraid-to-regulate-big-tech-eu-competition-commissioner-vestager-explains-why/#respond Thu, 28 Mar 2019 18:16:25 +0000 https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-03-28/europe-not-afraid-regulate-big-tech-eu-competition-commissioner-vestager-explains A requirement for Google’s YouTube, Facebook’s Instagram and other sharing platforms to install filters to catch copyright violations known as?Article?13?(now renumbered to?Article?17) has triggered protests, with an online petition garnering more than 5 million signatures so far.

The European Commission wants to reform copyright rules to protect Europe’s cultural heritage and ensure fair compensation to publishers, broadcasters and artists. The European Parliament is due to vote on the commission’s proposal on Tuesday.

And it was only last year when Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg?said before Congress last year that?“It’s clear now that we didn’t do enough to prevent these tools from being used for harm as well … Our position is not that regulation is bad. I think the real question is: What is the right framework for this? Not, should there be one?”?

One thing is certain: In Europe, the framework for reining in high-tech companies?is taking shape faster than in the US.

Margrethe Vestager is the EU’s competition commissioner and former deputy prime minister of Denmark. She serves as a powerful force in the regulation of global businesses, and she joined The World’s host Marco Werman in the studio to explain the impact that her role has and how regulations are decided.?

Marco Werman:?Can I ask you first of all, what does your title actually mean, commissioner for competition?

Margrethe Vestager: Well, it means that I’m the law enforcer. So,?it’s my job to have the leadership of the law enforcement of European competition law.

You’ve been in that position since 2014.?What does that mean practically when you’re looking at US, high-tech companies like Google. Google searches account for 9?out of 10 searches in the EU, correct?

That’s correct, yes. Everyone is welcome to do business in Europe. No matter the flag you’re flying or where you have your home, but you will have to do business according to the European rulebook, when in Europe. This is why when someone complains or when we ourselves get a suspicion that something is wrong, we start investigating.

?

A women speakers into a microphone inside a recording studio.

Margrethe Vestager speaks?about EU regulations.

Credit:

Alex Newman/The World?

What do you consider something that is wrong? What would you start to investigate?

Well, take the first Google case. Here, you have a company which is dominant in search which has then used search to promote its own shopping comparison service and demote rivals in shopping comparison services, on average, to page four. This is a misuse of your success. You’re more than welcome to be successful, but if you do become dominant. you get a special responsibility. The more power you have, the stronger your responsibility.

So, the EU has fined Google three times in recent years. The most recent came down last week, a fine of $1.7 billion dollars. Are these fines meant to be big enough to dissuade companies from repeating their wrongdoing? Or, like in the case of Google, that they just see this as the cost of doing business?

Well, there are a number of functions when we take a decision. One is to fine past behavior. Second is to say, “You’ve got to stop what you did and you cannot do anything to the equivalence.” And then, of course, to start remedying the marketplace. What we see now after the Google shopping decision is that the shopping unit, the shopping box, has been opened to rivals. Now, I think in 3 out of 4?searches for a product, you would find rivals in the shopping box and in 40 percent of clicks on a product, that click would go to a rival of Google, to a merchant that is not in the Google universe. So, you see that the market is improving.

Related:?Facebook says data leak hits 87 million users, widening privacy scandal

It seems there are really two big issues here: the monopoly trend that seems to dominate high tech and also the privacy problems. Which is more important to you as a regulator and as the commissioner for competition in the EU?

Competition legislation is a very strong tool, but just because you have a very big hammer you shouldn’t think that everything is a nail. I think it is important that competition law enforcement works with regulation because you cannot do everything by competition tools. You need also the marketplace to be framed by, for instance, privacy issues, copyright issues, in order for this not to turn into something Wild West, where you basically just see the consumer as part of your product.

You’re the former deputy prime minister of Denmark. Some people will hear your comments and say, “The biggest and most successful firms in the world came from countries with the least rigid regulations.” Do you think regulation stifles the innovation we all want?

No, I don’t think so. I think regulation works sometimes as an incentive. Of course, it very much depends on your state of mind. If you just want a completely open space to innovate or you say, “Well, I consider these to be things that I will build in, I will do, for instance, privacy by design instead of as an add-on. I’ll add on something more or less superficial in the end.” Instead of saying, “Of course, I respect the privacy of the people who will use my services.” So, this is my starting point.

What about on the consumer end, because at the end of the day, a lot of people will say that they just want a high-speed, reliable search engine. They want their GPS directions fast. Privacy almost seems like an afterthought for a lot of consumers. You’re the person that looks after consumers — how do you square that circle?

When it comes to privacy, we have different preferences. Some people really value their privacy. Some people really couldn’t care less. What we’re trying to say is that we can take legitimate decisions in our democracy as how to balance that, because our digital citizen rights, they are not for the most private person and they are not for the one who doesn’t care at all. It’s a balanced approach to say, “If you if you do this, then we can all find ourselves in this space.”

Related:?European lawmakers had tough questions for Mark Zuckerberg. For the most part, he ducked them.

We reached out to Google and told them we were going to be speaking with you today. Kent Walker, senior vice president of global affairs at Google told us in writing: “We’ve always agreed that healthy, thriving markets are in everyone’s interest. We’ve already made a wide range of changes to our products to address the Commission’s concerns. Over the next few months, we’ll be making further updates to give more visibility to rivals in Europe.” Are you satisfied with that statement? Is Google doing enough regarding privacy and competition?

He’s absolutely right to say that Google has made a number of changes for rivals to be visible in this marketplace. When it comes to shopping comparison services, I think they’re important for everyone so that you can find the cheapest product available in the quality you want, with the after services that you would be expecting, with the low shipping costs. In the Android case, they will be providing you a choice screen if the Google products have been preinstalled, so that you yourself can choose what do you actually want to do. So, yes, they are making a number of changes.

In the interest of open competition, you told an audience at the South by Southwest (SXSW) festival that you use a search engine called Qwant, which I just tried out. I found myself looking for Google Earth on Qwant. There are just some things that you can’t escape aren’t there?

Well, I think to some degree, you’re right. I myself try to maintain curiosity.

What does Qwant give you that Google doesn’t?

First of all, I get the results I’m looking for very often as the first result. I don’t have to scroll through advertising and of course, that’s a matter of preference. This is my preference.

And in terms of privacy?

Yes, they are privacy consistent. This is privacy by design services.

This inteview has been edited and condensed for clarity. Reuters contributed to this report.?

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Antarctica Dispatch 9: Thoughts on climate change and returning home_亚博0手机版 – 亚博0手机版 http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/23/antarctica-dispatch-9-thoughts-on-climate-change-and-returning-home/ http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/23/antarctica-dispatch-9-thoughts-on-climate-change-and-returning-home/#respond Fri, 22 Mar 2019 17:55:15 +0000 https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-03-22/antarctica-dispatch-9-thoughts-climate-change-and-returning-home The Nathaniel B. Palmer is headed back to port in Chile. Scientists aboard the vessel have spent the last several weeks conducting research at Thwaites Glacier in Antarctica.

There’s a sense of excitement to return home to family.

Victoria Fitzgerald and Scott Braddock are shown on one of the Schaefer Islands wearing heavy red jackets with Scott pointing off to the distance.

Victoria Fitzgerald, a PhD student at the University of Alabama, left, and Scott Braddock, a PhD student at the University of Maine, explore one of the Schaefer Islands off the west coast of Antarctica.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

University of Alabama PhD student Victoria Fitzgerald is excited to see her 10-month-old daughter. “I left and she was barely crawling,” Fitzgerald said. “And now she’s like standing up for herself.”?

Aleksandra Mazur is shown putting Swedish flags in Mardi Gras pastries.

University of Gothenburg researcher Aleksandra Mazur helps prepare a traditional Swedish Mardi Gras pastry for the scientists and crew aboard the Palmer.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

Other scientists expressed enthusiasm for simpler things one could take for granted on the mainland like fresh vegetables — long since absent in the pantry of the Palmer. And University of Gothenburg researcher Aleksandra Mazur longed for uninterrupted sleep, “[i]n complete silence. No voices, no ice hitting the ship,” she said.

Oceanographer Peter Sheehan is shown with a red jacket and white scarf with Thwaites glacier in the background.

Peter Sheehan, an oceanographer at the University of East Anglia, is photographed in front of Thwaites Glacier early on the morning of the Nathaniel B. Palmer’s arrival.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

Oceanographer Peter Sheehan said he’s looking forward to the little things. “I’m looking forward to a glass of wine,” he said. “I’m looking forward to my own bed. I am looking forward to — I suppose just the little things like cycling to work — the little routines you don’t realize that you’d miss until you don’t have them anymore.”

Gui Bortolotto and Lars Boehme are shown leaning on a counter with Bortolotto holding a camera.

Gui Bortolotto and Lars Boehme, both from the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, examine a photograph while?on the bridge of the Nathaniel B. Palmer.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

As researchers headed home, they reflected on what brought them to Antarctica in the first place: a changing climate, and their desire to understand it better.

Marine ecologist Gui Bortolotto says the topic can be depressing, especially when he thinks about his 2-year-old son.

“We still have the feeling that he just arrived in this world, and when my wife and I talk about this, we’re like wondering if he’s going to be happy with all the issues the world has,” he said.

The front of the Nathaniel B. Palmer ship is shown at the bottom of the photo breaking through ice floes.

The Nathaniel B. Palmer breaks through ice floes during its southward transit.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

Bortolotto also worries about the fate of his own hometown, a low-lying coastal city in Brazil. But he said he works hard to separate these feelings from his work.

“When I’m doing my job, I’m not thinking that my hometown will be underwater, I’m thinking that this is a global issue that I need to help to understand,” he said.

One important takeaway after the long trip to Thwaites Glacier, is just how difficult it is to gather data in places like Antarctica.

Researchers hoist the orange-colored Hugin autonomous submarine onto the deck of the Nathaniel B. Palmer.

Researchers hoist the Hugin autonomous submarine onto the deck of the Nathaniel B. Palmer at the start of the ship’s mission to study Antarctica’s massive Thwaites Glacier.

?

Credit:

Linda Welzenbach/Rice University

And it took seven years for University of Gothenburg oceanographer Anna W?hlin to get an unmanned submarine down underneath the glacier with its roughly 20 sensors track changes in the water and mapping the seabed.

Chief Scientist Rob Larter is shown in the nearground looking out at Thwaites glacier on the morning of arrival.

Chief Scientist Rob Larter looks out at the glacier on the morning of arrival.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

The researchers on the Palmer are already starting to analyze the data they gathered on this trip and write up their findings. Ultimately, their data will be published and fed into models that will provide more accurate predictions of future sea level rise.

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Why Luxembourg’s free transit may not fix its traffic problem_亚博0手机版 – 亚博0手机版 http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/21/why-luxembourgs-free-transit-may-not-fix-its-traffic-problem/ http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/21/why-luxembourgs-free-transit-may-not-fix-its-traffic-problem/#respond Wed, 20 Mar 2019 19:15:44 +0000 https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-03-20/why-luxembourgs-free-transit-may-not-fix-its-traffic-problem Luxembourg is one of Europe’s smallest countries.?It’s roughly the size of Rhode Island,?nestled between Belgium, Germany?and France.

And yet,?the tiny nation has a big traffic?problem.

So, it’s doing something no other country ever has:?Making all?public transportation free.???

“I don’t think there is a great potential for people to change their behavior as a result of making public transport free in Luxembourg,” said?Oded Cats, who studies transportation at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands.?

Cats says there are already?cities and towns around the world experimenting with this.?Estonia’s capital Tallin, for example, made public transit free for residents back in 2013.

But the results weren’t so great.?People who were biking, walking, or already using public transit, used it more.?

Oded Cats:?We don’t see any reduction in car traffic and therefore we cannot also expect any change in emissions, unfortunately.?

Marco Werman: I mean, do you understand that? Because I don’t.?If I were offered free public transportation I think I’d be using it a lot more, and I have a car. I know the benefits of car transportation in a city like Boston, where you need a car.?

Yeah, I agree. Intuitively, you would expect that. What we see is that price is very seldom a reason for people to start with to not use public transport. There are two things you can do to attract people to use public transport. One is to make the cost of using a car more expensive —?and I emphasize using a car. So you make a more conscious choice of whether to use a car for any given trip, especially in a rush hour to downtown. You can do pricing measures for congestion charging. Secondly, you can make public transport more attractive and improve the level of service by reducing frequency and liability primarily. It’s very seldom the case that one doesn’t use public transport because it’s too expensive compared to the car.?

So you mentioned Tallinn, the Estonian capital, where there was a fare reduction. What cities have you looked at where they have eliminated any fee for riding public transport and what have you seen there??

We have very limited experience internationally with free public transport. We see it generally in small towns, tourist resorts, ski resorts?and university towns —?places where there is very little public transport to start with and there are specific user groups. There are very few cases where we have mid-sized or larger cities that introduced this, Tallinn being the most interesting example, with about half a million residents. What makes it difficult is for this to become financially sustainable. So, public transport systems worldwide have two main sources of income, one being subsidies through taxpayer?money, and the other being ticket revenues. The split between these two varies from one place to the other. So in Tallinn, the break down was 70 percent subsidies and 30 percent ticket revenues before it became free. In most European cities, it’s about 50-50. In the US, by the way, it’s much higher. There, it’s about 80 to 90 percent coming from subsidies, with few exceptions in large metropolitan areas. So, if your subsidy level is already very high, then the questions are whether you want to get to 100 percent and what is the identity of income source that will substitute the lost ticket revenues.?

So?clarify one thing: in Tallinn, do they have reduced fare or is it completely free??

Now it is completely free for residents. You must register as a resident of Tallinn for you to be eligible for a free ride. The only reason this was financially sustainable for them is because there were 30,000 people that lived in Tallinn but were not registered as residents and for them to benefit from free rides, this was an incentive for them to register. And once they are registered, they pay a municipal tax. The additional revenues from this municipal tax for those people that are now newly registered and it covers?lost ticket revenues.?

When this plan goes into effect in Luxembourg who’s going to be able to get on and off the buses and trains for free, just citizens? With the whole Benelux —?Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxembourg —?you’ve got a lot of people coming in just to work for the day, right??

Indeed, very good point. In Luxembourg, about 50 percent of people are actually commuters from neighboring countries, primarily Germany, France?and Belgium. That is an interesting challenge because it will only be free on the?Luxebourgian part of the trip. If you take, let’s say, a train trip from Germany or France, they will have to pay for the ride. Only the domestic trips in Luxembourg?will be free.?

Luxembourg is one of the wealthiest countries in the world. Ultimately, isn’t that the reason you’re actually able to try this out in the first place? Could you imagine this happening in a less wealthy country??

No, that is indeed the case. Luxembourg can afford it. It’s also the case that its subsidy level for public transport is already fairly high. It has very limited rural or suburban areas?where public transport is less efficient. So, for all these reasons it’s a place where you can afford introducing this.

At the same time, I would not expect great impacts. First, because of its traffic beyond domestic borders?and secondly, because a lot of people who work in Luxembourg?either lease a car or get a car from their employer and have some obvious benefits associated with using a car such as a?park and so forth. So, I don’t think there is a great potential for people to change their behavior as a result of making public transport free [in] Luxembourg.

When does this plan actually go into effect??

After this summer, I believe.?

This interview was edited and condensed for clarity.

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Seven decades after the bomb, children of Hiroshima victims still worry about hidden health effects_亚博0手机版 – 亚博0手机版 http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/20/seven-decades-after-the-bomb-children-of-hiroshima-victims-still-worry-about-hidden-health-effects/ http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/20/seven-decades-after-the-bomb-children-of-hiroshima-victims-still-worry-about-hidden-health-effects/#respond Tue, 19 Mar 2019 16:07:44 +0000 https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-03-26/seven-decades-after-bomb-children-hiroshima-victims-still-worry-about-hidden Nakatani Etsuko says her father rarely spoke of the day that the world’s first atomic weapon killed 140,000 people in his city of Hiroshima, Japan.

But she says he did mention one thing: “That there were so many dead bodies in the river, you couldn’t see the water.”

Etsuko’s father was a teacher in Hiroshima. He was out of town when the bomb fell on Aug.?6, 1945. But he returned to the city the next morning to check on his school.

It was gone. All 319 students were dead. He couldn’t save anybody, but Etsuko says he stayed to help cremate the bodies and collect the bones to give to the parents.

Hiroshima clock

A photo in the?Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum shows a clock stopped at the moment the atomic bomb exploded over the city.

Credit:

Ibby Caputo/The World?

But that meant that he was exposed to radiation lingering in the city after the bombing. After a few days, he collapsed and started showing signs of radiation sickness. He grew pale and lost his hair and?had a high fever and diarrhea. He slept all day.

Related:?‘I still hate the glow of the setting sun’: Hiroshima survivors tell their stories

He eventually did recover — many others who were exposed to residual radiation did not — but Etsuko says the memory of what happened haunted him.

“Because he had this experience, he was very worried about his children,” Etsuko said. Even his children who were born after the bombing.

Etsuko was born four years later. Her father worried about her and her siblings’ health, and about discrimination against them. Rumors spread that bomb survivors carried contagious diseases and that their children would be disabled or have deformities.

“I still remember those words very vividly,” Etsuko said. “And I have been feeling very anxious about it ever since.”

Etsuko says she was a sickly child. She and her family feared that was because of the bomb, and she says it’s one of the reasons she never married. She says she worried what would happen if she had children.

Related:?Hiroshima survivors want more than a US apology

Even today, at 69, Etsuko still worries about getting sick because of her father’s exposure to radiation. And she’s not alone. A few years ago, she founded an organization of children of survivors of the Hiroshima bombing. She’s also a plaintiff in a lawsuit against the Japanese government seeking to win medical benefits for survivors’ children.

Direct survivors of the atomic bomb, a group known as hibakusha, are eligible for special health benefits under a law passed decades after the war. Etsuko’s lawsuit is aimed at extending those benefits to people like her.

Nakatani Etsuko

Nakatani Etsuko’s?father suffered from radiation poisoning following the Hiroshima bombing. She was born four years later, and has?been plagued by anxiety about her health since she was a child.

Credit:

Ibby Caputo/The World?

The problem is, there’s no evidence that children conceived after the bombing have suffered higher rates of illness.

“Until now, we have not seen effects,” said?Eric Grant, with the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima. The organization has been investigating the health effects of atomic bomb radiation on both survivors and their children since soon after the war.

“It would be surprising to see large effects” on these children now, after so long, Grant said.?

The Japanese government seems even more certain. In its response to the lawsuit, the government cites a 2013 report by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation stating that there is no scientific proof that genetic mutations occur in children whose parents were exposed to radiation.

Separately, a spokesperson for the government’s Health Service Bureau said there is “absolutely no scientific basis” for claims that children of survivors have been affected.

Still, Grant says, that may not be the last word.

“The possibility remains,” he said,?and his organization is continuing to study it.

This possibility —?however small —?worries many children of survivors. It doesn’t help that a lot of them don’t trust the data that shows no health effects, a distrust that goes back all the way to the days after the war, when researchers studied A-bomb survivors but didn’t actually treat their injuries.

Children of survivors are also concerned because lab studies of mice do show genetic mutations in the offspring of parents exposed to radiation. But it’s not clear whether those studies have any relevance to health impacts in humans.

Grant says there is now technology to look for genetic markers that could indicate radiation-induced mutations that could, in turn, be linked to health issues. He says the technology is extremely expensive and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation hasn’t yet begun to put it to use, but he says researchers hope to move ahead with it soon.

For her part, Etsuko doesn’t want to wait for more research. She says the government should extend the bomb survivor support laws, just in case.

“The problem is the government relies on the data, and as long as the research shows that children of survivors are not affected by radiation, the government is not willing to extend support laws.”

Etsuko?Nakatani, 69, adult child of Hiroshima survivor?

“The problem is the government relies on the data, and as long as the research shows that children of survivors are not affected by radiation, the government is not willing to extend support laws,” she said.??

Related:?Why this Hiroshima survivor dedicated his life to searching for the families of 12 American POWs

Like Etsuko, some children of survivors are now in their 60s?and 70s. And like her, they’ve lived with anxiety about their health for their whole lives. She says that in itself is a burden.

“The most important problem is our insecurity about our own health,” she said.?

It’s an unquenchable fear that may be one of the most enduring impacts of the bomb.

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How European kids are schooling politicians on climate change_亚博0手机版 – 亚博0手机版 http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/15/how-european-kids-are-schooling-politicians-on-climate-change/ http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/15/how-european-kids-are-schooling-politicians-on-climate-change/#respond Thu, 14 Mar 2019 16:37:54 +0000 https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-03-14/how-european-kids-are-schooling-politicians-climate-change Dhanya Reitschuster didn’t want to cut class this Friday —?or last Friday?or the one before. “I personally really like my school,” said?Reitschuster, 15. “If they would listen to us, then we wouldn’t [have] to be here.”

“They” are world leaders, who, since signing the Paris Accord in 2015, have failed to make headway in reducing carbon emissions to slow global warming. And by “we,” she means the roughly 500 middle- and high-schoolers protesting with her in downtown Munich on a drizzly winter morning, and the thousands of kids doing the same in cities across Germany and Europe. For weeks now, they’ve been racking up unexcused absences on Fridays because they’re afraid for the planet’s future.

“Why should we go to school when our world is broken in 50 years?”

Amanda Schliewen, 14

“Why should we go to school when our world is broken in 50 years?” asked?Amanda Schliewen, 14, marching with Reitschuster and a group of friends from a Munich Montessori school.

Romy Karolus, 14, says adults in power have betrayed them. “They always say that they love us, but they didn’t care about our future.”

The school strike movement known as Fridays for Future began in August 2018?when Swedish high school student Greta Thunberg started skipping school on Fridays to picket the Swedish parliament for climate action. Her school strike picked up attention on social media, and over the months since then, increasing numbers of European schoolkids have followed her lead.

Greta Thunberg

16 year-old Swedish environmental activist Greta Thunberg has been the sparkplug behind the student strikes and the Fridays for Future protests. She spoke at a rally in Hamburg, Germany on March 1.?

Credit:

Morris Mac Matzen/Reuters/File Photo

Large majorities of Europeans believe climate change is a serious problem and that governments need to take action. But skipping school to say so has been controversial.

Last month, British Prime Minister Theresa May’s office scolded striking kids in the United Kingdom for wasting teachers’ time. A Belgian environment minister accused Belgian school strikers of being manipulated by shadowy, outside powers (she resigned soon after). One student in Munich said his high school has moved all their tests to Fridays. And more than a dozen students who spoke to a reporter at a recent march said they were going to get in trouble for being there.

Despite the pushback, the protests have been growing, with tens of thousands of kids taking part in Europe, alone. A worldwide strike is planned for March 15, with?more than 1,000 marches planned in 89 countries, according to organizers. The striking students are getting new support from parents, teachers?and scientists who say: They’re right.

kids climate march

Large?majorities of Europeans?believe climate change is a serious problem and that governments need to take action. But skipping school to say so has been controversial.

Credit:

The World?

“Younger people are seeing with absolute clarity the real problem that this planet faces,” said?professor Joy Carter, vice-chancellor of Winchester University in the UK, and an environmental geochemist. She’s?one of thousands of European scientists and academics who have signed letters in support of the striking students.

“We’re already seeing wildfires, increased temperatures, water shortages; already these major effects are with us. Politicians have to wake up, and governments need to do that. And young people are a catalyst for change.”

Joy Carter, vice-chancellor of Winchester University in the UK?

“We’re already seeing wildfires, increased temperatures, water shortages; already these major effects are with us. Politicians have to wake up, and governments need to do that. And young people are a catalyst for change.”

Dr. Bart Verheggen, a climate scientist at Amsterdam University College, says schoolchildren “make a very strong moral appeal” to political leaders. While he hasn’t signed a letter in support of the kids, he says their call for much greater emissions reductions than the world has achieved so far makes a strong point.

“The thinking is usually that children should be in school to learn from the adults. But that does not mean necessarily that it cannot be a two-way street. There is a lot that adults can learn from children.”

Their science lesson is pretty simple. “We want you to follow the Paris Agreement and the IPCC reports,” Thunberg told an audience of European politicians and civil society representatives in Brussels on Feb.?21. “Unite behind the science. That is our demand.”

kids climate march

Over a few months, kids have shown they can rally by the thousands, capture headlines?and spark public debate about the need to respond to climate change.?

Credit:

The World?

Faced by overwhelming scientific consensus on the urgency of climate change, governments agreed three years ago at the UN climate conference in Paris to take action to try and limit global warming. But in practice, that means making politically unpopular changes, like drastically reducing carbon emissions by cutting way back on society’s use of fossil fuels like coal and gasoline. Many politicians have been unwilling, or unable, to follow through.

signs

Despite the pushback against the Fridays for Future events — asking for action on climate change —?the protests have been growing, with tens of thousands of kids taking part in Europe, alone.?

Credit:

The World?

Fridays for Future wants them to get back on track. By cutting class, they’ve captured the spotlight, and now politicians are the ones getting schooled.

“Politicians don’t want to talk to us? Good. We don’t want to talk to them, either. We want them to talk to the scientists,” said Thunberg.

Some politicians are listening to both. In a speech alongside Thunberg, European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker said the EU should step up its efforts and dedicate a quarter of its budget to fighting climate change.

German Chancellor Angela Merkel dedicated a recent,?weekly podcast to climate action, and said she supports the strikers. But Merkel herself has struggled to move as quickly as many say she needs to. In the same message, she told students unhappy with the pace of her government’s coal?phaseout plan that its 20-year timeline is the best she can do.

Many climate activists say that’s too slow. The latest UN climate science report warns that without drastic action, it might only take 11 years for the Earth to cross the dangerous warming threshold of 1.5 degrees Celsius. The clock is ticking.

kids climate march

The striking students are getting new support from parents, teachers?and scientists who say: They’re right.

Credit:

The World?

And that’s where Fridays for Future’s future becomes hard to predict.

Over a few months, kids have shown they can rally by the thousands, capture headlines?and spark public debate. But if the weight of scientific consensus hasn’t managed to spur policymakers to difficult, drastic action, how can a bunch of class-cutting teenagers?

The answer may be in the march of time itself. Because no matter what action governments take now, in a few years, Greta Thunberg and the rest of the school strikers will be old enough to vote —?and run for office themselves. ?

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Antarctica dispatch 8: Behold grease, shuga and pancake ice_亚博0手机版 – 亚博0手机版 http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/14/antarctica-dispatch-8-behold-grease-shuga-and-pancake-ice/ http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/14/antarctica-dispatch-8-behold-grease-shuga-and-pancake-ice/#respond Wed, 13 Mar 2019 19:11:44 +0000 https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-03-13/antarctica-dispatch-8-behold-grease-shuga-and-pancake-ice As February gives way to March and the nights grow longer at the bottom of the world, the sea around the Nathaniel B. Palmer is starting to freeze up.

The National Science Foundation-chartered icebreaker is wrapping up its trip to Thwaites Glacier, on the west coast of Antarctica, where an international group of scientists is on an eight-week expedition to unlock the secrets of why, and how fast, the Florida-sized glacier is?melting.

But ice is not just what the scientists here are studying. It’s also what controls where, when — and even if — they can do their work.

Grease ice forms in front of a the large horizontal ice face of Pine Island Glacier.

Grease ice forms before sunrise in front of Pine Island Glacier.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

As the Amundsen Sea freezes up and winds move old ice around, this refreezing has already prevented the Palmer from reaching areas clear for passage just days before.

On Wednesday, the captain of the Palmer and science team leaders decided to start heading north a few days ahead of schedule after a final study site was blocked by ice and satellite images showed the passageway out of the Amundsen Sea growing narrower.

The front of the Nathaniel B. Palmer ship is shown at the bottom of the photo breaking through ice floes.

The Nathaniel B. Palmer breaking through ice floes during its southward transit.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

The seawater here is always close to freezing, and the whole top layer of water must reach that temperature before the surface layer starts to solidify. That means a small drop in temperature or a strong wind blowing off the frigid continent can prompt ice to form fast,?growing up to five inches thick in just two days.

“You just need a tiny little bit of energy taken out of the system and it starts to freeze,” says Lars Boehme, an oceanographer and ecologist from the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. “And?it starts to freeze a lot.”

The yellow railing of the a research vessel is in the nearground with ice shown forming in the Amundsen Sea.

Larger pancake ice forms in the Amundsen Sea.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

This rapid freezing has added an extra challenge to safely lifting autonomous gliders and submarines from the sea over the past few weeks.

Sea ice formation, as explained by Nathaniel Bowditch in what’s commonly known as the mariner’s bible (officially titled American Practical Navigator) starts when tiny, needle-like crystals called spicules or frazil ice form in the top inch or so of seawater.

Grease ice turning to shuga on a still day with large white icebergs off in the distance.

Grease ice turning to shuga on a still day.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

When these crystals are blown together by winds and currents, they form matte streaks called grease ice, which look like an oil spill and subdue the effects of wind and waves on the surface of the water.

Next comes shuga ice — so called, says the Palmer’s captain Brandon Bell — because it looks like sugar thrown into water that didn’t dissolve, a soupy opaque layer of ice crystals and small ice chunks that floats on top of the water and dampens the waves even further, making?the water unearth it undulate.

A narrow break in new ice is shown in the middle of the photo on a gray day in the Amundsen Sea.

The wind cleaves a break in new ice on a gray day in the Amundsen Sea.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

Temperature, wave action and salinity control how new ice progresses from shuga to older, thicker, more brittle ice, but in this part of the Amundsen Sea, the next stage is often the formation of disks of ice, tiny at first, looking like cells or tiny lily pads, that grow larger?until they’re classified as pancake ice.

Thousands of circular white pieces of ice are show across the photo.

Pancakes, circular pieces of ice formed when?wind and waves break up new ice and abrasion rounds off its edges, start to form here.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

“As it gets colder and colder, the water is trying to freeze into a sheet, but there’s movement, so it’s breaking that sheet apart, and you get these little chunks of ice,” says Joee Patterson, a marine technician on the Palmer who’s on her ninth voyage to Antarctica. “As they get tossed and blown by the wind and current, it rounds off the edges a little bit.”

“One of the things that’s really distinct about the pancakes as they start forming is that the edges are sort of curled up because they’re kind of crashing into each other,” Patterson said.

If temperatures stay low enough, the pancakes, which can be up to nine feet across, can join together and freeze into ice cakes, larger ice floes, and, once they’re several miles wide, ice fields.

The brown railing of the research vessel is shown in the near ground with larger pancake ice formations in the Amundsen Sea.

Larger pancake ice forms in the Amundsen Sea.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

When it’s young, these large pieces of ice can still be flexible.

“You can actually see the sea swell moving under the ice field. It’s very disorienting, and kind of gives you a sense of vertigo because the ground is gently rippling underneath you,” Patterson said.

These relatively flat sheets of new ice regularly grow up to six feet thick in their first year.?If the ice survives the next summer’s warmer days and round-the-clock Antarctic sunlight, it’s then called second-year and then multi-year ice.

As it ages, ice gets harder and more brittle and the salt is squeezed out of it. (Ice that’s clear and has all the salt squeezed out of it is called bar ice, because it’s good in the kind of beverage not allowed on a dry ship like the Palmer.)

As it ages, large white pieces of ice crash into each other to form pressure ridges in a photo with a thin water path through the two sides.

As it ages, pieces of ice crash into each other to form pressure ridges.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

As the wind and waves crash pieces of ice together, they form pressure ridges that look like tiny mountain ranges made of meringue. Old ice, deformed in this way and growing thicker each winter from snowfall, is much harder — requiring more time and fuel — for a reinforced ship like?the Palmer to break through.

As the ship turns north to begin the journey along the west coast of Antarctica, around the Antarctic Peninsula and to the southern tip of Chile, Captain Brandon Bell is keeping a close eye on the weather as far away as Australia, and on ice images supplied by the US National Ice Center, constantly on the lookout for pathways of open water to ease the trip home.

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Happy 30th birthday, internet. Here is 21 years of The World’s website._亚博0手机版 – 亚博0手机版 http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/13/happy-30th-birthday-internet-here-is-21-years-of-the-worlds-website/ http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/13/happy-30th-birthday-internet-here-is-21-years-of-the-worlds-website/#respond Tue, 12 Mar 2019 18:05:47 +0000 https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-03-12/happy-30th-birthday-internet-here-21-years-worlds-website Tim Berners-Lee first proposed the World Wide Web on March 11, 1989. Now, the internet and the web mean virtually the same thing and the world is connected in a way no one foresaw three decades ago.?

In honor of the annivesary, we thought we’d take a nostalgic trip of our own and look at?The World’s many iterations on?the information superhighway.

The World’s website is as old as the show itself, which launched in 1996. Back in the 1990s, an on-air promo for the website said that there are plenty of stops on the information superhighway, but that if you’re looking for news and features about the whole world, theworld.org was your destination. (You can play the audio file above to hear it.)

That’s quite a mandate for a website that — at first — took three days to update.

Jonathan Dyer, now The World’s managing editor, would select three stories from the show and send them to PRI’s headquarters in Minneapolis, Minnesota, where the website was managed at the time.

It was a website designed for the audience to be able to come back and listen to the show or individual stories.?

Take a closer look at these homepages, archived on Wayback Machine.

1998

The World's website in 1998 featured a story about a conflict between Israelis and Palestinians.

1999

A screen grab of The World's website in 1999 featuring a story about US military helicopters in Albania.

2000

The World's website in 2000 featuring a story about a Russian submarine.

2001

The World's website in 2001 featured a story on the war in Afghanistan.

2002

The World's website in 2002 featured a story about elections in Turkey.

2003

The World's website in 2003 featured a story on music of Venezuela.

2004

The World's website in 2004 featured a story about Kung Fu Fighting.

2005

The World's website in 2005 featured a story about Israeli settlements.

2006

The World's website in 2006 included a story about musician Dougie MacLean.

2007

The World's website in 2007 featured a story about the arrest of six militants in New Jersey.

2008

The World's website in 2008 featured a story about an attack in Iraq.

2009

The World's website in 2009 featured a story about election fraud in Afghanistan.

2010

The World's website in 2010 featured a story about a battle in Kirkuk, Iraq.

2011

The World's website in 2011 featured a story about France's role in Libya.

2012

The World's website in 2012 featured an interview with Nasser Weddady.

2013

The World's website in 2013 featured a story about President Obama and Syria.

2014

The World's website in 2014 was relaunched at PRI.org

2015

The World's website in 2015 featured a story about a global refugee crisis.

2016

The World's website in 2016 featured a story about a controversy over pronouns.

2017

The World's website in 2017 featured a story about DACA recipients.

2018

The World's website in 2018 featured a story about a filmmaker in Afghanistan.

2019

The World's website in 2019 featured a story about the cancelation of Carnival in Haiti.

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The trolls are winning, says Russian troll hunter_亚博0手机版 – 亚博0手机版 http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/13/the-trolls-are-winning-says-russian-troll-hunter/ http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/13/the-trolls-are-winning-says-russian-troll-hunter/#respond Tue, 12 Mar 2019 16:17:24 +0000 https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-03-13/trolls-are-winning-says-russian-troll-hunter Slaying online trolls can be a lonely business. Just ask Russia’s Lyudmila?Savchuk, who first exposed the story of Russia’s disinformation campaign back in 2014.?

The journalist and 33-year-old mother of two, Savchuk started noticing websites and social media accounts attacking local opposition activists in her hometown of Saint Petersburg with a frequency she hadn’t seen before.?

Lyudmila?Savchuk stands to the left, wearing a black sweatshirt

Russia’s Lyudmila?Savchuk?was hired as a blogger.?Once on the inside, Savchuk was stunned to see hundreds of young?Russians working as paid trolls in rotating shifts.

Credit:

Charles Maynes/The World?

The posts were all too similar. The verbal assaults too coordinated. So, when Savchuk later heard that an organization rumored to be behind the campaign — the Internet Research Agency or IRA — was hiring writers, she went for it.? ?

“I wanted to get in there to see how it works, of course,” says Savchuk. “But the most important thing was to see if there was some way to stop it.”

Related: In Russia, a ‘ghost empire’ rises

She was hired as a blogger and told to report to Savushkina 55, a nondescript four-story office building on the outskirts of town.?

Once on the inside, Savchuk was stunned to see hundreds of mostly younger Russians working as paid trolls in rotating shifts.

Roaming the halls when she could — cameras were everywhere — Savchuk discovered the IRA was full of different “departments.” There was the “news division,” the “social media seeders”, and a group dedicated to producing visual memes known as “demotivators.”

Related:?A guide to Russian ‘demotivators’

Despite the division of labor, the content was remarkably uniform. The US, the EU, Ukraine’s pro-European government, and Russia’s opposition were regular targets for scorn. And then there was Russian President Vladimir Putin — seemingly no Russian triumph under his rule was too small to warrant a celebratory tweet, meme or post.?

“Each worker has a quota to fill every day and every night,” Savchuk says. “Because the factory works around the clock. It never stops. Not for a second.”??

The work occasionally dipped into the absurd: at one point, Savchuk had to pretend to be a fortune teller named “Cantadora” — mixing blog musings on astrology, crystals, and rare gemstones with pro-Kremlin talking points. (One of Cantadora’s more accurate predictions was Vladimir Putin’s victory in Russia’s then-future 2018 presidential elections.)?

This kind of soft-pedal trolling, Savchuk says, seemed to prove that the IRA was bent on reaching even the most marginal and apolitical of Russia’s expanding online?audience.?

Related:?A mole among trolls: Inside Russia’s online propaganda machine

In total, Savchuk spent just two and a half months at the IRA before she went public about the troll factory in a local newspaper.

Her conclusion: The troll farm was a Kremlin project, run by a shadowy local restaurateur named Evgeny Prigozhin.

While Prigozhin has denied those charges, his name may sound familiar to American audiences. Often called “Putin’s Chef” for his close ties to the Russian President, Prigozhin was placed under US sanctions in 2018 for what American officials say was a coordinated attempt to interfere with the US elections.

Related:?Autocracies that look like democracies are a threat across the globe

But that? That would all come later.??

Even before the local troll exposé spread into a full-blown international scandal, Savchuk shifted to activism: lecturing on disinformation and trying to name and shame participants in the troll farm.

“I acted like any journalist would,” she says. “Only, then I went further. I realized an article wasn’t enough.”?

She even sued the IRA in a Russian court in 2015 — winning a symbolic 1 ruble victory over the troll farm for labor code violations.?

The court ruling brought the work of the Internet Research Agency “out of the shadows,” says Ivan Pavlov, a human rights lawyer who represented Savchuk in the case.

“I can make comparisons to Al Capone. The US government couldn’t get him for being a gangster but they could get him for tax evasion,” he tells The World.??

Meanwhile, Savchuk continued to publish her thoughts on countering disinformation to her main online outlet: her Facebook feed. And this is where Savchuk’s weird troll-slaying story takes an even weirder turn.?

After returning home from a disinformation conference?in Washington, DC, in November, Savchuk found her Facebook account inexplicably blocked. ?

Repeated attempts to restore her account and verify her identity with her passport went nowhere. Finally, in mid-February — boom.?With no explanation, her profile was back.?

Why this happened at all is still a mystery. Facebook did not respond to questions from The World about Savchuk’s access.?

But Savchuk posits that IRA trolls may have flooded the platform with complaints about her account.?Her problems with Facebook, she notes, started only after she talked openly about threats she’d received from people affiliated with Evgeny Prigozhin.??

Putin sits at a desk while a man on either side stand behind him

Evgeny Prigozhin, left,?assists Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin during a dinner with foreign scholars and journalists at the restaurant Cheval Blanc on the premises of an equestrian complex outside Moscow Nov.?11, 2011

Credit:

Misha Japaridze/Pool/File Photo/Reuters

The possibility is not far-fetched. Last October, the independent newspaper Novaya Gazeta published an investigation claiming that people affiliated with Progizhin were behind attacks on opposition figures and bloggers.

Another possibility: Savchuk was swept up by a Facebook campaign to weed out fake Russian troll accounts. Company executives have touted those efforts amid increased congressional scrutiny after the 2016 election. And some western media outlets have mistakenly identified Savchuk as a “former troll.”?

Related:?Trump’s business history with Russia is a long and colorful one?

Either way, Savchuk feels burned by the experience. She says she thought her work against the IRA was helping Facebook understand how its platform could be gamed.??

“When Facebook blocked me,” she says. “I couldn’t do that anymore.”?

Meanwhile, the stress and online isolation have taken a toll.?Savchuk doesn’t hide that she had a breakdown since blowing the whistle on the IRA.?

And while she doesn’t regret taking on the fight, this troll slayer — now 37 — is no longer convinced she can win.

Even though he was indicted by Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s investigative team last year, “Putin’s Chef” is doing just fine, Savchuk notes.

A recent investigation into Prigozhin suggests his media empire and government contracts have grown exponentially since the IRA was cast out of the shadows.

Despite — or maybe because of — attention from the US, good things keep coming Prigozhin’s way. ?

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Antarctica Dispatch 7: Under Thwaites Glacier_亚博0手机版 – 亚博0手机版 http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/07/antarctica-dispatch-7-under-thwaites-glacier/ http://yafeiwj.com/2019/03/07/antarctica-dispatch-7-under-thwaites-glacier/#respond Wed, 06 Mar 2019 20:24:00 +0000 https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-03-06/antarctica-dispatch-7-under-thwaites-glacier Scientists aboard the icebreaker Nathaniel B. Palmer this week are getting their first up-close look ever at a massive Antarctic glacier that could play a big role in global sea level rise.

They think the Thwaites Glacier is melting and becoming unstable primarily because water that’s warmer and saltier than normal is reaching the underside of its ice shelf, which juts out into the sea. But they don’t know exactly how much heat that water is bringing to the area, or whether it’s been brought by changing wind patterns linked to climate change.

On this voyage, scientists are measuring the water temperature and salinity in front of Thwaites and looking at troughs and sediments on the seafloor, all in an effort to figure out how much this warm water may be getting piped in under the glacier’s floating edge, and what it might mean for the glacier’s future.

It’s a crucial question. Thwaites is increasingly unstable, and a rapid collapse could raise global sea levels by 1-2 feet over 50-100 years.

The Hugin, a long orange metal submarine is shown on the deck of the ship.

The Hugin on deck.

?

Credit:

Linda Welzenbach/Rice University

One of the newest scientific tools that they have on board to study all these things is an unmanned submarine called Hugin.?It’s about the length of a shipping container and has roughly?20 sensors on it that track changes in the water and map the seabed.

Researcher Anna W?hlin is shown with a microphone looking out on the ocean.

University of Gothenburg oceanographer Anna W?hlin, director of the Hugin project, waits on the bridge of the Nathaniel B. Palmer for the Hugin submarine to surface in icy seas near the face of Thwaites Glacier.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

The Hugin submarine is shown getting tied to a winch cable.

After wrangling the Hugin with a small Zodiac, the sub gets tied to a winch cable and hoisted back on deck of the Nathaniel B. Palmer.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

The words

A good luck message on the side of the Hugin survived the sub’s 13-hour mission in the Amundsen Sea around Thwaites Glacier.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

University of Gothenburg scientists are shown throwing snowballs.

University of Gothenburg scientists have a celebratory snowball fight after the Hugin returns from its first mission near Thwaites Glacier on March 1, 2019.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

Aleksandra Mazur is shown opening a metal panel on the Hugin.

Aleksandra Mazur opens a panel on the Hugin to download data from its excursion.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

Scientists are shown tightly gathered around a computer.

Scientists gathered in the ship’s lab to look at early images the Hugin captured of the seafloor near Thwaites.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

Most of the data the Hugin collected on its first Thwaites mission still needs to be analyzed, and, there are more missions to come on this voyage. But whatever its discoveries, project director Anna W?hlin says this first mission has already proved the value of high-tech, autonomous vehicles like the Hugin in the push to get a better understanding of what’s going on where the water meets the ice in Antarctica.

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Antarctica Dispatch 6: First sight of Thwaites — mapping uncharted seafloor_亚博0手机版 – 亚博0手机版 http://yafeiwj.com/2019/02/28/antarctica-dispatch-6-first-sight-of-thwaites-mapping-uncharted-seafloor/ http://yafeiwj.com/2019/02/28/antarctica-dispatch-6-first-sight-of-thwaites-mapping-uncharted-seafloor/#respond Thu, 28 Feb 2019 14:30:20 +0000 https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-02-28/antarctica-dispatch-6-first-sight-thwaites-mapping-uncharted-seafloor The Nathaniel B. Palmer arrived at Thwaites Glacier around 2 a.m. ET on Feb. 26, nearly a month after departing Chile. On the first day at Thwaites, the Palmer traced a roughly 100-mile path around the edge of the glacier and above it into the Amundsen Sea.

While navigating around Thwaites, researchers mapped portions of the sea floor in front of the glacier that were previously uncharted.

The railing of the Nathaniel B. Palmer is shown with Thwaites Glacier in the distance.

On the first day at Thwaites Glacier, the?Nathaniel B. Palmer traced a roughly 100-mile path around the Florida-sized glacier’s edge.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

These maps will help scientists understand what happened as Thwaites receded in the past, and how it might behave going forward, allowing models to better predict how much the Florida-sized piece of ice might contribute to sea level rise in coming decades.

Oceanographer Peter Sheehan is shown with his jacket hood over his head while looking out at Thwaites.

Oceanographer Peter Sheehan looks out at Thwaites from the bow of the ship before sunrise on the day of arrival.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

“It looks kind of mystical,” said Peter Sheehan, an oceanographer with the University of East Anglia in the UK. “It’s like standing in a cathedral, you feel the hush of reverence.”

From the side of the vessel, the Nathaniel B. Palmer is shown with a smoke stack in the nearground, navigating along the eastern tongue of Thwaites glacier.

The Nathaniel B. Palmer navigates along the eastern tongue of Thwaites glacier.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

Layers of snow are shown along the edge of Thwaites Glacier

Layers of snow shown here, are like the rings in trees and can help scientists date glaciers.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

The Amundsen Sea was particularly still during the Palmer’s first day at Thwaites, allowing the ship to get closer to the glacier than expected. Navigating through uncharted waters, Chief Mate Rick Wiemken said he kept about a quarter mile from the glacier face to reduce any risk to the ship from calving icebergs.

The front face of Thwaites glacier is shown rising an estimated 60 to 75 feet above the dark blue ocean waters.

The front face of Thwaites glacier rises an estimated 60 to 75 feet above water in the areas where it is most intact. Roughly 90 percent of an ice sheet typically sits below the water line.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

As the Palmer navigated west along the face of Thwaites, the glacier front grew increasingly broken and chaotic — visual signs of its instability.

Glacier fronts are typically relatively uniform, with sheer vertical fronts like cliff faces. The wavy top and gentle seaward slope of Thwaites in many places, and in icebergs recently calved from Thwaites, are also signs of its volatility.

The Nathaniel B. Palmer is shown tracing the edge of the Thwaites ice shelf from east to west and reached portions of the glacier that were more degraded.

As the Nathaniel B. Palmer traced the edge of the Thwaites ice shelf from east to west, it reached portions of the glacier that were more degraded.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

Irregular shapes and downward slope characteristics are shown at the face of much of Thwaites Glacier.

The irregular shapes and downward slope characteristic at the face of much of Thwaites Glacier are signs of its instability. Crevasses and low points mark sites where future icebergs may calve.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

Thwaites Glacier starts on land and flows into the Amundsen Sea, forming a vast shelf of ice floating over a cavity of water that’s never been directly studied before.

“We know more about the moon than this particular part of Earth,” says Anna Wahlin, an oceanographer from the University of Gothenburg who hopes to send an automated submarine near the front of Thwaites on this expedition.

Chief Scientist Rob Larter is shown in the nearground looking out at Thwaites glacier on the morning of arrival.

Chief Scientist Rob Larter looks out at the glacier on the morning of arrival.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

“This is a critical boundary in the world today,” said?Chief Scientist Rob Larter of the British Antarctic Survey, looking out at the glacier on the morning of arrival.

”This is where rapid change is really happening, and we’re actually standing and looking at the bit that’s rapidly changing.”

Sea ice and icebergs are shown broken off of Thwaites and blown westward.

Sea ice and icebergs broken off of Thwaites were blown westward by recent storms, compacting them west of the main glacier faces and allowing the Nathaniel B. Palmer to reach areas never before studied.

Credit:

Carolyn Beeler/The World

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